Here (Instructables) is a fantastic discussion on using cold water to show what “stage” your sugar is at to decide when to take it off the heat. Honey doesn’t work the same way. Honey has three steps, soft ball, hard crack, and burnt.
These steps help you use the cold water test to get the texture of honey you want. Combines with the “sight” you get close to a consistent product every time you make candy.
You can also use ‘smell’, but once you smell the honey is burnt it is too late.
Henry Buttes in Dyets Dry Dinner* says “…ginger condite with honey, warms old mens bellies…it is very restorative.”
1/4 cup honey
pinch of ginger, ground (or saffron, black pepper, cinnamon)
1 bowl of really cold water.
Warm a frying pan on medium. Place honey in frying pan and bring to a boil. Skim the surface of any impurities as you work, stirring continuously.
You should notice the honey change from golden clear to a light brown at around 4-6 minutes. Drip a few drops of honey into your cold water. The honey makes a pale platelet that sinks to the bottom. If you touch it, and eat it, it is very soft and chewy. At this temp you get a sticky mess if you pour it out on your nonstick surface. Good for shaping or caramel.
After 2-4 more minutes the honey will suddenly change darker. Drip a few drops of honey into your cold water. The honey makes a darker hard platelet that floats on top of the cold water. If you touch it, and eat it, it is crunchy.
Quickly add the spice and stir.
Pour the mixture onto a non stick surface to cool.
break apart to serve.
You can test your candy by dropping it in the water as you go to reassure yourself that it hasn’t burnt. It will go from hard crack to burn in about 30 seconds so its good to test frequently.
Found at Early English Books Online as a pdf of the original printing, or my transcribed (annotated and redacted) version on amazon.ca
This is a series of blog posts dedicated to making candy with honey (instead of sugar or corn syrup). I’m teaching a class on this in February so I am prepping for my class and blogging about it.
When making candy please have a bowl of water on hand to treat burns if the need arises.
This blog is how to use the changing colours of hot honey (or your sight) as an imperfect gauge for candy making (instead of a thermometer method). The cooking times given will be determined by the moisture content of your honey and the humidity of your kitchen. Raw honey is about 20% moisture, where candy is around 1-5%. Heating is what causes the moisture loss, obviously.
Honey boiled with walnuts, called nucato. Take boiled and skimmed honey, with walnuts chopped slightly and spices, cooked together; dip your hands in water and spread it out; let it cool and serve it. And you can use almonds and hazelnuts in place of walnuts.An Anonymous Tuscan Cookery Book
1/4 cup honey
1/2 cup walnuts, chopped small
pinch of ginger, ground
2 pinch of cinnamon, ground
Place honey in sauce pan on medium, and bring to a boil. Skim the surface of any impurities as you work, stirring often.
Mix the chopped walnuts, and spices, into the honey and coat well. Bring honey back up to a boil and stir continuously.
You should notice the honey change from golden to a pale brown once it is brought to boil again, after the nuts are added, at around 4 minutes. At this temp you get a sticky mess.
After 3-4 more minutes the honey will suddenly change slightly darker, more of a cardboard box brown.
After 2-3 minutes the honey will suddenly change darker again, light brown leather coloured. This is a firm but slightly chewy candy. (If you keep going after another 30 seconds to 1 minute you will get, very dark brown, which is a hard, and brittle candy, but the risk of burning the mixture at this time is very high.)
Pour the mixture onto a non stick surface to cool.
To make an almond tart. Take half a pound of almonds peeled and ground, quince preserved in sugar, a dozen dates well washed therein, & chop very small with the quince, & half an ounce of cinnamon, three ounces of sugar, two yolks of eggs, & mix all with the almonds, & make the tart like the others. Master Lancelot de Casteau, Montios Ouverture de Cuisine (1604)
8 oz ground almonds
2 cups stewed or canned quince (~2 quinces worth) **
12 cooking dates, chopped small
1 tbsp cinnamon
3 oz raw cane sugar
2 egg yolks
1 large tart shell
preheat oven to 350
Mix all ingredients together well, and pat into tart shell. Mixture will be paste like.
Bake for 45 minutes or until pie crust is golden and filling is firm but sticky.
** could probably use 2.5 cups of quince or more. Would experiment with adding in quince liquid or using quince jam if making again. I thought it would be too sweet with the sugar syrup but the pie is awfully thick.
So when redacting a recipe sometimes the author puts in fantastic instructions that answer the “white kind?” question. In this simple boiled chicken recipe the author calls for a “white broth” which means white bread to thicken not brown, grape verjuice not crabapple or something colourful.
This recipe is also a good example of using various different meats, or meat fats, to create flavours. Mutton bones added to the hens layers flavours without the added expense of a good cut of mutton.
To seeth Hennes and capons in Winter, in whitebroth. Take a neck of mutton & a marow bone, and let them boile with the Hennes togither, then take Carret roots, and put them into the pot, and then straine a little bread to thick the pot withall and not too thicke, season it with Pepper & vergious, and then cover them close and let them boyle togither, then cut Sops and put the broth and the marrow above, and so serve them. A.W. A Book of Cookrye (1591)
mutton broth made from fatty bones or mutton bones
1 or 2 small chickens
12 rainbow carrots or white carrots
1/4 cup grape verjuice (lots of verjuice make the carrots bitter, but compliments the fats)
Lots of Pepper to taste, fresh ground
1/2 cup breadcrumbs (I think if you need to ground almonds or oats would work)
Bread to serve**
Put all ingredients into pot with enough broth (or water if you have bones) to cover. Bring to boil and then drop temperature to simmer until chicken comes up to temperature (165° F / 75° ) and joints easily turn, and meat is falling off bone ~90 minutes.
** cut into sops here could be that the chicken is sliced like sops and then the other ingredients are piled on top. I like using the sliced bread definition of sops when there is a broth/sauce like this.
Rainbow carrots are found in the grocery store. “Carrots” by Mistress Agnes de Lanvallei and History by the World Carrot Museum both are good timelines about the humble carrot.
I made a complicated carrot pudding dish before when I had a batch of carrots but this time something colourful but humble.
“Pastinaca sativa tenuifolia, Pastinaca satiua atro-rubens.
Carrots. The root of the yellow Carrot is most commonly boiled with fat flesh and eaten… The red Carrot is of like facultie with the yellow.” John Gerard’s Herball or General Historie of Plantes (1633)
Using the same source recipe I used poached the pears in syrup, I am baking pears. I was concerned about how expensive the poached pears were so I am trying the recipe with a different interpretation this time.
Arrange pears in a small baking dish so that they touch and support each other upright.
Mix remaining ingredients into a sauce and cover the pears with the mixture. Pour any remaining syrup into baking dish.
Bake pears for ~35 minutes, until the are browned and soft. Baste with its own cooking liquid halfway through baking.
Serve with pear sauce drippings.
* I prefer the baked pears recipe flavour to the poached pears recipe except the poached was so much easier and look nicer. The pepper really comes through in this dish. I will ask Marie which one she prefers.
Making sage dressing from my Big Buttes Book for Thanksgiving dinner with my family. Fresh sage mixed with olive oil, cider vinegar, pepper, salt, honey, and cinnamon (full recipe on page 191) with romaine lettuce and the cutest, medievalist looking, cabbage from Pam’s garden.
I’m thankful for friends who grow me cool stuff, my dog who will eat anything, and my family.