Steak or Alaunder of Beef.

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Alaunder of beef. Take leches ( slices ) of the lengthe of a spoune, and take parcel and hewe fmal, and pouder of pepur, and maree, and tempur hit togedur, and take leeches of beef, and rolle hom therin, and laye hom on a gridirne, and on the coles tyl they ben rolled ; and if ye have no maree, take of the self talgh’ and hewe hit with the parcelle, tand tempur hit as ye dyd before. Antiquitates culinariae(1791) Ancient Cookery 1425

Maree, or sometimes spelled marie or mary, is marrow. Talgh’ is tallow and an amazing way to spell it. You could probably use butter, but marrow doesn’t really taste the same.

Rare steak is done cooking at 130-135°F; where as well done is 165°F.

Ingredients

  • 2 steaks (500 grams ish) room temperature
  • 2 tbsp of beef marrow (or tallow) fresh from bone melty or room temperature
  • 2 tbsp of parsley, minced or flakes
  • fresh black pepper to taste, ground (enough so you can smell it)

Directions

  1. Preheat grill on high temperature.
  2. Mix marrow, parsley, and pepper together on a plate.
  3. Roll the steak around in the marrow mixture, using a knife to help spread it evenly on both steaks.
  4. Grill steak ~2 minute per side. (1 minute was still bleeding, but grill to your taste).
  5. Serve hot*.

*with bread, its super greasy but amazing.

Edit: It has been pointed out to me that this recipe should be stuffed and rolled-up beef rolls that look like tiny birds. Beef should be very very thin to make this work and secured with a toothpick or skewer. 

Cheese and Onion Tart or Tart On Ember-day

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Tart on Ember-day. Parboyle onions, and sauge, and parsel, and hew hom small, then take gode .fatte chese, and bray hit, and do therto egges, and tempur hit up therwith; and do therto butter and sugur, and raisynges of corance, and pouder of ginger, and of canell; medel all this well togedur, and do hit in a coffyn, and bake hit uncovered and serve hit forthe. Richard Warner, Antiquitates culinariae(1791) Ancient Cookery 1425

Ember-day is a fast day the observant Christian medieval person would follow. It wasn’t fast that meant no-food, but fast meaning no meat. If you are looking for vegetarian recipes “ember” or “in lent” are useful terms to know.

Often you see this recipe with the typo “fauge” instead of “sauge” throwing all sorts of confusion into the mix. There is no herb ‘fauge’ (probably) but there are calligraphy ‘s’ that looks like ‘f’.

Onions being dry and hot of course respond well to being parboiled. It also takes away some of the cooking time and bitterness of the onions. When chopping the cooked onions be careful, they are very slippery*. If you chop them before parboiling you will add a lot more moisture to the pie unless you drain them really well.

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Ingredients
* 4 onions, peeled
* 1 tsp sage
* 1 tsp parsley
* 300 ml soft goat cheese
* 4 eggs
* 1/4 cup butter
* 2 tbsp raw cane sugar
*  2 tbsp currants
* 1/2 tsp ginger, ground
* 1/2 tsp cinnamon, ground
* 1 deep dish pie crust

Directions:
1) Place peeled onions into a sauce pan and cover with water. Bring onions to rolling boil. Remove from heat and drain. Let cool before chopping each onion into small pieces (makes about 3 cups of chopped onion)

2) Preheat oven to 350.

3) Mix chopped onions, herbs, cheese, eggs, butter, sugar, currants and spices together. Use the herbs and currants to gauge when it is evenly mixed.

4) Pour onion mixture into pie crust and bake for 1 hour, until pie is golden brown, and middle is cooked. Serve hot or cold.

* yes I cut myself chopping the onions. 

Basil & Ginger Meringue or How to Make a White Roman Tart

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This savory tart should be fluffy not dense. If a dense tart was wanted the cook would use:

  1. egg yolks not whites and
  2.  hard cheese not creamed

All ingredients should be room temperature (except the melted butter).

The recipe calls for adding foam and carefully not adding the liquid left after beating. This liquid is water. With the creamed cottage cheese being so wet, the pie would take longer to cook or become soggy if more liquid was added.

The rest of the redaction choices are easy–the cook gives very precise measurements.

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To make a white Roman tart. Take a pound of white cheese of cream, then take the whites of six eggs, & beat then well until a foam forms on the surface like snow, & let a little stay in without beating, then take the foam from thereon, & cast it into the cheese, then beat the whites at the top until again foam forms on the surface like the first time, & cast onto the cheese, & make again two or three times as such, then take two ounces of melted butter, a little ginger, a little chopped basil, & make the tart, & cook like the others. Master Lancelot de Casteau, Ouverture de Cuisine (1604)

Ingredients:

  1. 1 lb cottage cheese, creamed
  2. 2 branches basil, stems removed, chopped small
  3. 1 tsp ginger, grated
  4. 2 oz butter, melted
  5. 6 egg whiles from small eggs (1/2 cup), whipped
  6. 1 deep dish pie crust

Directions

  1. Pre-heat oven to 350
  2. Pour cheese into large bowl, then cover with basil, ginger, and butter but do not mix. Then cover with egg whites and gently fold ingredients together. The basil will be bright green and show if the batter has been mixed together.
  3. Slowly pour batter into pie shell. Its ok if the mixture is taller than the crust, it is more or less the final height on the tart.
  4. Bake for 40-50 minutes, or meringue is browned and doesn’t have a liquid-jiggle in the middle when pan is tapped.
  5. Serve hot or once cooled.

Modern: make it in little ramkin dishes as souffles because OMG adorable. 

Stuffed Beef Rolls or ‘To Make Alloes Of Beef’

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This is the simplest version of Alloes of Beef that I have found. Daniel Myers covers beef rolls with more ingredients, including boiled egg yolks, and a sour sauce, on his web page. Myers lists three additional sources for the reader to play with if they desire.

To make Alloes of beef. Take lene beef and cut hym in thyn pecys and lay hit on A borde then take sewet of motton or of beef and herbys and onyons hackyd small to gether then straw thy leshes of beef with powder of pepur and a lytell salt and strew on thy sewet and the herbys. And rolle them up ther yn put them on a broche and roste them and serue them up hote. Gentyll manly Cokere (MS Pepys 1047) (1500)

Ingredients
* 1/4 cup suet, broken into pieces
* 2 small onions or one large, minced small
* 2 heaping tablespoons dried sage
* 2 heaping tablespoons dried parsley
* 1 kilo (6) thin beef “inside and sandwich” steaks
* pepper to taste
* salt to taste

Directions

  1. Preheat oven to 350.
  2. Mix suet, onions, sage, and parsley together. Set aside.
  3. Lay a piece of long thin beef out onto a large cutting board. Salt and pepper to taste. Cover the meat with a generous handful of the suet mixture along its length. Roll up a fat beef roll and then skewer to hold in place. Place it in a baking dish lined with parchment paper. Repeat for each steak. Optional: Dump any left over filling onto the nested beef rolls. 
  4. Bake beef rolls on 350 for 50 minutes, or  beef filling reaches 165°F, and onions are softened.
  5. Serve them up hot.

Modernly you could probably put the filling ingredients through a food processor and brush on more of a flavouring sauce than a stuffing. If you used beef sliced for fondu and the sauce you could have small appetizers on toothpicks instead of a main course.  

Roasted Chicken with Apples, Currants and Barberries

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Barberries look like goji berries, they taste like dried cranberries simmered in lemon juice. You can buy them (and verjuice)  at specialty groceries, like a Mediterranean Grocery Shop.

I again used my clay cooker to roast my chicken but you can use any roasting pan with a cover. Always cook chicken up to 165 F.

To bake chickins. First season them with cloves & mace, pepper and salt, and put to them currans and Barberies, and slitte an apple and cast synamon and suger upon the apple, and lay it in the bottome, and to it put a dish of butter, and when it is almost enough baked, put a little suger, vergious and orenges. Thomas Dawson, The Second part of the good Hus-wiues Iewell (1597)

Ingredients:

  • 2 apples cut into slices
  • 1/2 tsp cinnamon, ground
  • 1/2 tsp raw can sugar
  • 1 whole chicken
  • 1/2 tsp mace, ground
  • 1/2 tsp cloves, ground
  • 1/2 tsp pepper, ground
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1/3 cup butter

Stuffing:

  • 1/3 cup dried currants
  • 1/3 cup dried barberries
  • 1 apple cored and coarsely chopped

Sauce:

  • 1 tbsp raw cane sugar
  • 1 tbsp verjuice
  • 1/4 cup of sour orange juice

Directions

  1. Soak clay roaster for 15 minutes to hours
  2. Place apple slices onto the bottom of your clay roaster, cover with 1/2 tsp sugar and cinnamon.
  3. Mix stuffing ingredients, currants, barberries, and chopped apple together.
  4. Place chicken on top of the apple slices. Put stuffing mixture inside bird cavity. Sprinkle cloves, mace, pepper, salt over the top of the bird. Dab the butter all over the top of the bird.
  5. Place lid on the clay cooker and place into cold oven. Heat oven to 420 and bake chicken for 90 minutes, or until bird reaches 165 F, and legs or wings twist off easily.
  6. Mix 1 tbsp of sugar, verjuice, and orange juice together.
  7. Take cook bird out of oven and turn off oven, and close oven door. Gently pour sauce over chicken, recover and return to still warm oven until you are ready to serve.
  8. Serve with stuffing, sauce and drippings from pan.

Salmon Pastries or To bake a ioll of fresh Salmon

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I wanted to find a fish recipe to make for Christmas Eve, one of the few fish days that have continued to modern times.

The following recipe tells one to bake a salmon in the oven for 2 hours. I am making small hand pies and not an entire salmon. Salmon cooking times are usually around  4 to 6 minutes per half-inch of thickness–if you were not wrapping it in pastry. While high-quality salmon can be eaten raw, it is dry and chewy if over cooked. Its recommended that salmon be cooked until its temperature reaches 145 F.

To bake a ioll of fresh Salmon. TAke Ginger and salt, and season it, and certaine Corrans, and cast them about and vnder it, and let the paste be fine, and take a litle Butter and lay about it in the paste, and set it in the Ouen two houres, and so serue it in. The good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kitchin  (1594)

Ingredients:

  • 1 100g piece of salmon per person
  • enough pastry to wrap each piece
  • 2 tsp of butter
  • 1/2 tsp ground ginger, ground
  • 20 currents
  • pinch of salt

Directions
1) Pre-heat oven to 350.
2) Lay out pastry and rub it with butter.
3) Spread out 1/2 tsp of ginger and salt on top of the butter.
4) Put 10 currents down on one half of the pastry. Place piece of salmon on top of the currents, then place 10 currents on top of salmon.
5) Using water to stick pastry edges together wrap the pastry around the salmon.
6) Brush top of pastry with butter and then bake pastry for 40 minutes, until pastry is golden and internal temperature reaches 145. Serve hot.

Sawse Madame XXX or Quince Sauce for a Goose

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Quince (also called conne, coynes, quyncis, coyces) is technically in season. Its still hard to find in Ontario even though they can grow here. They are picked after the first frost and you want to use them when they are green with a few brown spots and not when they are a bright, tight green. They should smell fragrant when you bring them to your nose.

Sauce Madame is an amazing quince based sauce for a goose. It combines stuffing and goose drippings to make the perfect sauce to go with a goose. You can probably use frozen quince instead of fresh but quince jam or paste will not work as a substitute. There are a few additional Sauce Madame recipes that use pear than quince but that makes me sad because quince is awesome.

Here are a few links to roasting goose:

This recipe makes more sauce than there is goose. Its worth it and amazing.

SAWSE MADAME. XXX. Take sawge. persel. ysope. and saueray. quinces. and peeres, garlek and Grapes. and fylle the gees þerwith. and sowe the hole þat no grece come out. and roost hem wel. and kepe the grece þat fallith þerof. take galytyne and grece and do in a possynet, whan the gees buth rosted ynouh; take an smyte hem on pecys. and þat tat is withinne and do it in a possynet and put þerinne wyne if it be to thyk. do þerto powdour of galyngale. powdour douce and salt and boyle the sawse and dresse þe Gees in disshes and lay þe sowe onoward. Forme of Cury (1390)

Ingredients:

* 1 goose [I brined for 24 hours, add salt to recipe if you don’t]
* 1 large quince, chopped, core removed
* 1 bosc pear, chopped, core removed
* 8 grapes, cut in half if large
* 5 cloves of garlic, chopped
* 2 branches sage, chopped
* 2 branches parsley, chopped
* 1 tsp hyssop
* 1/2 cup jelly from beef bone broth
* 1 cup white wine (I started with 1/3 cup and added for taste)
* fat and drippings from goose
* 1 tsp galingale
* 3 tsp powder duce mix

Directions

  1. I used the romertof instructions (listed above) for my goose. It starts with soaking cooker for 2+ hours before you start.
  2. Place goose inside clay cooker bottom, after making sure there are no bags of organ meats inside cavity.
  3. Mix quince, pear, grapes, garlic, sage, parsley, hyssop together. Stuff mixture inside goose. Gently place stuffing into bird. No need to sew it shut since you are not probably not spit roasting. Cover bird with top of cooker (if goose doesn’t fit completely inside move bird to large roaster and follow other goose cooking suggestions).
  4. Place roaster into a cold oven and then turn oven on to 420F. Set timer for 2 hours and walk away.
  5. Once two hours have passed, and your house smells amazing, remove bird from oven, and remove lid from cooker.  Remove stuffing from bird and gently pour off the drippings and fat from the bottom of the cooker. If bird is crispy and browned you can shut oven off otherwise return empty bird to the oven to brown without the cooker lid.
  6. Put roasted stuffing and the drippings into a sauce pan with beef jelly, wine, drippings and spices. Simmer together on medium low for 30 minutes until you are ready to serve goose. Mash or blend sauce to make it smooth before serving.
  7. Cut goose into smaller pieces and serve with generous amounts of sauce.